Florid papillomas involving glottic and subglottic regions.
A close-up view of laryngeal papillomatosis.
Early tracheal seedling or papillomas (arrows).
Extensive papilloma lesions obstructing the laryngeal inlet (X) and involving laryngeal surface of epiglottis (+). [E - epiglottis]
Papillomas with obstructive tracheal involvement. The left true vocal fold is spared.
Papillomas involving tracheal wall which had caused progressive obstruction.
Watch video of recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RRP) @ YouTube
Papilloma lesion involving inferior quadrant of tracheostomy opening.
Laserflex endotracheal tube- safe Poorly-wrapped and partly exposed
normal endotracheal tube
Laserflex endotracheal tube with double cuff near its distal end
Inadequately inserted ETT with the proximal cuff sitting just below the papillomas. This can also be caused by excessive neck extension or manipulation
during laryngoscope insertion or suspension.
Ruptured proximal cuff of ETT with leakage of saline. Distal cuff filled
with methylene blue is still intact; otherwise it will be flooded with blue fluid
and obvious bubbling will be seen.
If the latter happens, stop lasering immediately and re-insert new ETT!!!
A properly wrapped endotracheal tube with aluminium foil tape.
A laser-shield II endotracheal tube by Medtronic.
Carbonization or char (the black burnt area) is a potential media that can trigger micro-fire if struck by laser. It needs to be suck-out or wipe away if cumulated significantly. Good laser parameter settings minimize its formation. Striking
on oozing blood gives similar effect.
Figure showed the appearance of papilloma lesion immediately after laser a strike by using a micromanipulator (without scanning). When well-focused and correct wattage used, a clean vaporization with minimal char achieved.