Overall view of rima glottidis and below.
The subglottis"flushed" with cricotracheal segment.
Star- subglottis with cricothyroid membrane, cross- cricoid cartilage,
dashed line- 1st tracheal ring
Mid-trachea and below.
The "concertina" of tracheal rings. Horseshoe-shaped cartilage
with posterior musculomembranous segment (stars).
The trachealis muscles being supplied by autonomic innervation.
The tracheal bifurcation into right and left main bronchii.
The right main bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left.
Watch video on endoscopic anatomy of adult larynx, trachea, and bronchus
Anterior view Antero-lateral view
Stars- horseshoe-shaped cartlaginous rings of trachea,
double-ended arrow- membranous posterior segment.
This image shows an 80-90% upper tracheal stenosis.
The cricoid cartilage anatomy is normal.
The patient had emergency tracheostomy performed earlier
for acute airway obstruction.
Fibro-membranous upper tracheal stenosis.
Arrow- cricoid cartilage.
An upper tracheal tracheal stenosis complicating prolonged endotracheal intubation causing narrowing estimated 80% of normal tracheal lumen dimension (interrupted circle). Tracheostomy tube is seen below the stenotic segment (yellow arrow). Note incidental finding of right vocal cord cyst (green arrow).
Figure shows a complete tracheal stenosis. A good view of cricothyroid membrane seen through which cricothyroid puncture or incision made as a temporary measure in the management of an acute
and potentially fatal upper airway obstruction.
[yellow dotted line- cricothyroid cartilage, green dotted line- lower border of thyroid cartilage, CT-cricothyroid membrane, T-inferior half of anterior segment of thyroid cartilage, TVF- true vocal fold]
Watch video on complete upper tracheal obstruction @ YouTube
Voiceless due to complete upper tracheal obstruction.
TVF - true vocal fold, A - arytenoid, X - web, (+) - suprastomal granulations.
Close-up view of the lesions.
This would be an ideal situation for a cricotracheal resection
with end-to-end anastomosis. Imaging is necessary to estimate
the vertical length involved by the stenosis. It can be combined with
posterior cricoid split and cartilage graft placement whenever indicated.
Watch video on infected subglottic ulcers with cricotracheal stenosis @ YouTube
Granulation tissue seen along the anterior wall of trachea
above the tracheostomy tube prior to its excision.
Figure shows proximal right main bronchi stenosis
due to circumferential cicatrial scar.
Right tracheal adenoma with sessile pedicle which was ablated by using Nd:YAG laser. Image taken during rigid bronchoscopy assessment. (L - left, R - right)
Dry blood clot at tracheal bifurcation as seen by using flexible endoscope passed via end-tracheostomy in a patient who had total laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal cancer. Metastases need to be ruled out.
(P - posterior, R -right, L - left, C - carina)
The panoramic view of tracheal bifurcation taken months before the pathology developed.
Tracheitis with fibrin exudate formations involving mucosa of tracheal lumen (arrows) in a patient presenting with refractory coughs with excessive sputum. (T - true vocal fold, F - false vocal fold).
Thick and copious mucopus filling main bronchii and carina region.
Mucopus expectorant covering mucosal linings of lower trachea and bronchii worse on left side. (L - left, R - right)
Watch video on Bronchial Tree: Segmental Anatomy from an Endobronchial View @ YouTube