OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

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X-ray: Occlusal View

Normal X-ray of the mouth floor.  Although most submandibular gland calculi

are radiopaque, negative findings does not always exclude its presence. 


This is a panoramic X-ray scanning of the mandible and maxilla.  It is an excellent imaging technique in investigating dental or alveolus related lesions such as odontogenic sinusitis, root canal diseases, ameloblastoma and etc.




Another example of orthopantomogram.




Orthopantomogram with braces in-place. 


Further reading:Wikipedia

X-ray: Salivary Calculi

Figure shows a radiopaque submandibular gland calculi (arrow).

X-ray: Laryngeal Cartilage Calcifications


Cricoid and thyroid cartilages undergo calcification as the age increases.  It significance occurs in traumatic injury to the larynx and in cases of foreign body impaction in the upper oesophagust.  The former can result in fractures and in the latter it may be mistaken with a radiopaque foreign body.  This soft tissue X-ray of the neck show calcifications primarily involving the cricoid cartilage.

A well-defined radiopaque shadow which was reported as calcification of laryngeal cartilage in a patient with apparent foreign body impaction.  She has significant arytenoid mucosa edema secondary to reflux laryngitis and rigid oesophagoscopy proved no foreign body found in-situ.

X-ray: Foreign Body in The Upper Oesophagus

Figure shows a radiopaque foreign body in the post-cricoid/upper oesophageal segment.  [Red arrow- vertebral body, Green arrow- vertebral body + prevertebral soft tissue swelling, circle- impacted foreign body, inset image- the recovered foreign body]


Air in oesophagus (aeroesophagus) [interrupted round rectangle] as an indicator of foreign body impaction despite absence of radiopacity.  T - trachea, O - oesophagus.


Aeroesophagus (arrowhead) with oedematous arytenoid mucosa opacity (arrowhead-ball).  The patient had alleged fishbone impaction in the throat with transient blood stained saliva upon gagging followed by relief of pricking pain.  Endoscopy revealed lower posterior pharyngeal wall laceration with epiflottic haematoma and aytenoid mucosal oedema.  No foreign body found and no obvious pooling of saliva seen.

CT-scan: Foreign Body (Fishbone) in Upper Oesophagus I

CT-scan: Foreign Body (Fishbone) in Upper Oesophagus II

A well-defined linear radiopaque foreign body (fishbone) in vertical position at C5-C6 level in coronal view (above) and sagittal view (below).

X-ray: Loss of Normal Cervical Lordosis


A 'straight' cervical spine with faint linear opacity seen at postcricoid area.  C7 verterbra was not visualized


Loss of normal lordosis with minor reversal C3/C4 level (dotted line).  C1 to C7 verterbra were clearly seen in this X-ray.  Arrow - foreign body.  Note:Spurs of osteophytes in cervical spondylosis.


Foreign body removed from the patient as shown in X-ray above.

X-ray: Pre-Vertebral Space Widening

Figure shows widening of  pre-vertebral space in post-cricoid carcinoma. 

Laryngeal crepitus was absent on clinical assessment.

Prevetebral space widening due to cellulitis in a patient with chicken bone impaction in upper oesophagus.

X-ray: Cervical Osteophytes-Anterior Spinal Ligaments Calcification

CT-scan: Migrated  & Fully Embeddd Fishbone In Tongue Tissue

Axial view.

 Coronal view.

 Sagittal view,

X-ray: Cervical Osteophytes

Cervical osteophytes causing extrinsic bulge of posterior hypopharyngeal wall with potential symptom of globus and dysphagia.

Barium Swallow: The Pharyngeal and Upper Oesophageal Phases

These images show the normal barium swallow appearance 

during pharyngeal and upper oesophageal phases of swallowing

in a patient presented with dysphagia.

Barium Swallow: Filling Defect

Barium swallow in a patient who had total laryngectomy with recurrence of tumour encroaching oesophageal lumen causing dysphagia.

Barium Swallow: Extrinsic Compression by Cervical Osteophytes

                  Early osteophytes.                             Established osteophytes

                                                                   causing undulating appearance of 

                                                                       posterior oesophageal lumen

                                                                       due to extrinsic compression.

Barium Swallow: Pharyngeal Pouch

Barium Swallow: Zenker's Diverticulum

Oesophageal Diverticulum

Anterior oesophageal diverticulum (arrow) can be a potential cause of dysphagia.

Barium Swallow: Intra-Swallow Aspiration

Barium Aspiration

Introduction to CT Imaging

Wikipedia- Hounsfield Scale [Accessed 31.01.2012]

Hounsfield Scale [Radiodensity Measurement]

CT-scan of a Branchial Cyst


3D Reconstructed CT-scan of The Skull

3D Reconstructed CT-scan of Cervical Spine

Chest X-ray: Metastatic Carcinoma

Multiple pulmonary deposits of metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid which develops years after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation.


Head & Neck Arterial Supply on MRA