OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

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The Normal Lateral Nasal Wall

The Superior Turbinate

       Probable pneumatized superior            Normal superior turbinate turbinate

                   turbinate (star).                                  barey visible (oval).

The Middle Turbinate

Left middle turbinate with visible submucosal blood vessel (an occasional finding).  [S - nasal septum, MT - middle turbinate]

Natural Maxillary Sinus Ostium

Accessory Maxillary Ostium

The Sphenoid Sinus Ostium


N- nasopharynx, yellow arrow- eustachian tube opening, white arrows- sphenoid sinus ostium, ST- superior turbinate, MT- middle turbinate, IT- inferior turbinate.

[Left figure- right non-operated, right figure- post-operative view]


Figure showing a widely patent right sphenoid sinus ostium (arrow).

[N- nasopharynx, S- nasal septum]




Arrowhead ball- sphenoid sinus ostium.

Sphenoid Sinus Anatomy: Intraoperative

OP- optic nerve protuberance, CP- internal carotid artery protuberance,

O- optic nerve, PS- planum sphenidale, SF- sella floor, CL- clivus,

star- intersphenoid septa, arrow- opticocarotid recess.

Stars- internal carotid artery, squares- optic nerve.