OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

The Leading Online Gallery of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery Specialty

OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal Video Collections @

YouTube & MEDtube

The Nasopharynx as Seen by Using a Postnasal Mirror


The conventional postnasal mirrors.  Light is then shine onto it and reflected at desired viewing area of nasopharynx.

View of nasopharynx by using a postnasal mirror.


Currently, postnasal mirror has been superseded by endoscopic examination which offers superb view and well-tolerable by most patients.

The Nasopharynx as Seen by Using Retrograde Transoral  Nasopharyngoscopy Technique

This is the view of nasopharynx as seen by using a 70 degree endoscope.  The panoramic view is excellent and most of the main structures can be identified.  It is a good alternative to transnasal endoscopy and a better tolerated procedure

by most patients.

Close-up view

Hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate tail (IT) in parennial allergic rhinitis.

TT- torus tubarius, black stars- vomerine posterior free border.


IT- tail of inferior turbinate, MT- middle turbinate, yellow star- superior turbinate,

V- vomer, arrows- nasopharyngeal eustachian tube opening.

Salpingo-pharyngeal folds (stars).

The nasopharynx of a patient with cleft palate. 

[Star- torus tubarium leading to salpingopharyngeal fold, green arrow-

fossa of Rosenmüller, red arrow- nasopharyngeal eustachian tube opening]


Watch video of nasopharyngeal view as seen by using

transoral nasopharyngoscopy technique @ YouTube

Soft Palate Elevation and Velopharyngeal Closure Upon Swallowing

                        At rest                                          Upon swallowing

Transnasal nasopharyngoscopy showing dorsal aspect of soft palate

upon swallowing. Arrow - nasopharyngeal eustachian tube opening,

TT - torus tubarius, SP - soft palate,

yellow line - course of levator palati,

red line - course of tensor palati.

Soft Palate Elevation Upon Phonating Vowel "e"

                          At rest                                            Upon phonation

Velopharyngeal Isthmus Closure: The Passavant's Ridge

Transnasal rigid endoscopy view upon initiation (left)

and near completion (right) of velopharyngeal closure.

Transoral 70 degree nasopharyngoscopy in a patient with cleft palate.


Watch video of Passavant's ridge upon velopharyngeal closure @ YouTube