OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

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Conventional Laryngoscopy

Figures show sequential views of laryngopharynx and laryngeal inlet by using Macintosh laryngoscope blade as an adjunctive procedure during direct rigid laryngeal endoscopy.  Its tip was placed anterior to the epiglottis as opposed to Miller type which is placed behind the epiglottis. It is widely used by the anasthetist to aid insertion of endotracheal tube.  Amongst laryngologist, similar technique can be use without having to suspend the larynx for swift

evaluation of the airway by using rigid endoscopy especially if spontaneous breathing technique being used.

 Figure showing an example of Miller-type (left) and Macintosh-type (right)

intubating laryngoscopes.


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Intubation Video Laryngoscope


 An example of intubation video laryngoscope.



Bilateral Middle Ear Ventilation Tubes


Ventilation tube in-situ with restoration of normal middle ear status.

Bilateral Choanal Atresia: Endoscopic Surgery

Paediatric Airway Endoscopy

Endolaryngeal Airway Examination


This video shows a severely narrowed and inflamed upper tracheal lumen resulting in airway obstruction.  It manifests as noisy breathing or stridor and breathlessness. Thick and tenacious mucous is seen at laryngeal inlet with fibrinous exudates seen adherent to the subglottis walls. 

Paediatric Rigid Bronchoschopes

Subglottic Stenosis: Bougie Dilation

Before dilation. 


During dilation. 


 After dilation.

Laryngotracheal Reconstruction

Cortical Mastoidectomy Showing Air Cells

Partial Uvula Resection

Top left figure show a broad, hypertrophic uvula with an oedematous tip (+).  Careful examination under anaesthesia reveals minor bifid tip.  Partial uvulectomy was performed by using monopolar cautery at coagulation mode (top right figure).  Postoperative pain was well tolerated and the cut edge heals readily.