OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

The Leading Online Gallery of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery Specialty

OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal Video Collections @

YouTube & MEDtube

"Where" Snoring Comes From (Sleep Endoscopy)

Sleep Apnea

Views during Müller Manoeuvre for OSA Evaluation


SP- soft palate, PW- posterior pharyngeal wall,

T- tonsils, BOT- base of tongue, L- Larynx

The above figures demonstrate the pattern of velopharyngeal isthmus closure

upon Muller's manouevre.  The obstruction was mostly contributed by

tonsillar hypertrophy.


Watch video of complete circumferential closure with mild base of tongue prolapse upon Muller's manouevre @ YouTube


Watch video of  "kissing" tonsils as seen upon Müller's manoeuvre in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome @ YouTube


Suggested reading:

Johns MW. A new method for masuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991 Dec;14(6):540-5.

Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE)

Bronchoscopy on CPAP for OSA

Radiofrequency Surgery of Soft Palate by Dr O Rahmat


Watch another video of radiosurgery for snoring & mild OSA @ YouTube

Uvula Hypertrophy and Palatal Oedema

Throat findings in a patient with severe OSA showing broad & hypertrophied uvula.  Its mucosal lining is oedematous including the soft palate and tonsillar pillars.

OSA: Tonsillar Hypertrophy Grade IV

OSA with Acute Tonsillitis

Healed Tonsillar Fossa Appearance Post-Tonsillectomy for OSA

This image shows the appearance of tonsillar fossa

after tonsillectomy performed for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).

UPPP Sleep Apnoea Surgery (Uvulopalatopharyngopasty)

Oropharyngeal Morphology after Uvulo-Palato-Pharyngoplasty (U3P)

Partial Resection of Uvula (Uvulectomy) by Using Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser

Surgery for OSA: Modified CAPSO

Palatal & oropharynx view before surgery.

   Quadrangular mid-soft palate partial               Palatal & oropharynx view 

    mucosal and soft tissue excision.                  at completion of surgery.

Healed post-operative view of palate showing scar line

and widened nasopharyngeal opening.

SP- soft palate, PW- posterior pharyngeal wall, stars- scar line.


Suggested reading:

Pang KP, Terris DJ. Modified cautery-assisted palatal stiffening operation: new method for treating snoring and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 May;136(5):823-6.

Surgical Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Machine

An example of CPAP machine consisting of (1) pressure generator, (2) humidifier, (3) connecting flexible air conduction hose, (4) medical grade silicone nasal pads with an adjustable strap, and (5) AC power adaptor with connecting wire cable.

A close-up view of the silicone nasal pads which give a comfortable feels and fits snugly when in contact with the nasal introitus.