During spontaneous breathing Upon phonation
Upon forceful nose blowing with the mouth closed
The post-cricoid region is one of the subsite of hypopharynx. It not visualized upon indirect or rigid laryngoscopy examination as it is kept close by tonic contraction by the upper oesophageal sphincture which only opens upon second stage of swallowing.
The hypopharynx leading to upper Occasionally brisk opening seen opon
oesopageal sphincter. laryngeal examinarion (arrow).
The upper oesophageal opening (arrow).
Spontaneous wide upper oesophageal Upper osophageal opening
sphincter opening- a rare view. upon rigid oesophagoscopy.
Figure shows an internal sinus opening (arrow) in branchial arch anomaly.
Anterior bulge along posterior pharyngeal wall (arrows) caused by osteophytes
in cervical spondylosis.
Small haemangioma of posterior pharyngeal wall (ellipse) which was found as
an incidental finding on flexible transnasal laryngoscopy.
[PW - posterior pharyngeal wall, A - arytenoid complex]
Close-up view of the haemangioma (ellipse).
[PW - posterior pharyngeal wall]
Smooth bulge of posterior pharyngeal wall with intact mucosa
due to retropharyngeal malignancy.
Polyp seen arising from posterior end of left pyriform fossa abutting mucosal swelling of posterior pharyngeal wall caused by tumour.
Non-contrast CT-scan slices in axial and coronal view of a patient presented with painful left sided neck swelling and dysphagia. Direct laryngoscopy shows an ulcero-fungating tumour and biopsy confirmed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).