OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

The Leading Online Gallery of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery Specialty

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The Pyriform Fossae Views as Seen by Using 70 Degree Rigid Endoscope

The Pyriform Fossae Views as Seen by Using a Flexible Endoscope

      During spontaneous breathing                           Upon phonation

Upon forceful nose blowing with the mouth closed

The Pyriform Fossa: Visible Neurovascular Bundles Traversing Thyrohyoid Membrane

Oesophageal Inlet & The Post-cricoid

The post-cricoid region is one of the subsite of hypopharynx.  It not visualized upon indirect or rigid laryngoscopy examination as it is kept close by tonic contraction by the upper oesophageal sphincture which only opens upon second stage of swallowing. 

The hypopharynx leading to upper       Occasionally brisk opening seen opon

         oesopageal sphincter.                      laryngeal examinarion (arrow).      

The upper oesophageal opening (arrow).


        Spontaneous wide upper oesophageal          Upper osophageal opening

           sphincter opening- a rare view.                  upon rigid oesophagoscopy. 

The Nasogastric Tube In-Situ

Silicone nasogastric tube is seen in the oesophageal inlet which was inserted for the purpose of enteral feeding.

Sinus Opening in Branchial Arch Anomaly

Figure shows an internal sinus opening (arrow) in branchial arch anomaly.

Cervical Osteophytes

Anterior bulge along posterior pharyngeal wall (arrows) caused by osteophytes

in cervical spondylosis.


 Small haemangioma of posterior pharyngeal wall (ellipse) which was found as

an incidental finding on flexible transnasal laryngoscopy. 

[PW - posterior pharyngeal wall, A - arytenoid complex]

Close-up view of the haemangioma (ellipse). 

[PW - posterior pharyngeal wall]

Retropharyngeal Mass/Tumour

Smooth bulge of posterior pharyngeal wall with intact mucosa

due to retropharyngeal malignancy.

Carcinoma of Hypopharynx

Polyp seen arising from posterior end of left pyriform fossa abutting mucosal swelling of posterior pharyngeal wall caused by tumour.

Carcinoma of Hypopharynx Presenting as Neck Abscess

Non-contrast CT-scan slices in axial and coronal view of a patient presented with painful left sided neck swelling and dysphagia.  Direct laryngoscopy shows an ulcero-fungating tumour and biopsy confirmed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).