OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal

The Leading Online Gallery of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery Specialty

OtoRhinoLaryngology Portal Video Collections @

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Laryngopharynx: Endoscopic Surface Marking

Green stars- thin mucosa covering of inner perichondrium-pyriform mucosa interphase.  This is peel-off during arytenoid adduction/arytenopexy procedure

for the exposure of the arytenoid complex and its articular facet.

 Meticulous care taken to avoid perforation as laryngopharnx is non-sterile area.

Upward arrow- superior cornu, downward arrow- inferior cornu,

circle- cricothyroid joint.


Panoramic view of hypopharynx and laryngeal inlet at rest.

Panoramic view of hypopharynx and laryngeal inlet upon Valsalva manoeuvre.

[1 - aryepiglottic fold, 2 - pharyngoepiglottic fold, 3 - hyoid bone (middle constrictor and hyoglossus muscles are attached here), 4 - superior cornu of thyroid cartilage]


Watch video of hypopharyngeal appearance changes upon straining @ YouTube


Watch video on examination technique for better hypopharyngeal view @ YouTube

Anomaly of The Superior Cornu of Thyroid Cartilage

These figures show anteromedial projection of right superior thyroid cartilage cornu (circle).  It can be associated with foreign body sensation or globus. 

This finding is mostly incidental and it rarely cause significant symptom.


The superior cornu syndrome consists of unexplained throat pain, difficulty in swallowing, and odynophagia.  It is due to pharyngeal airway impingement

caused by ossified superior thyroid cornu.


Watch video on endoscopic view of superior thyroid cornua anomaly @ YouTube